These items were chosen to illustrate the topics of the demonstrations at The Forging, 2017. The second official annual gathering of the United League of Armourers in Grand Rapids MI Sept 23-25 2017. Specifically these items illustrate:


Gauntlet finger

Gauntlet finger circa 1370-1400

English. Three finger plates from a fourteenth century English gauntlet, most likely an hourglass gauntlet. Comprising the first, knuckle and second plates. Main plates decorated with raised ridges at the center bordered by pairs of engraved lines. First plate with slightly domed areas at both ends bordered with a lightly engraved line. Third plate with a slightly domed area at the front that is bent down slightly. Knuckle of domed form with a raised ridge the edges with an engraved line parallel to the edge with plain file decoration like simple roping. Each plate with two rivets to secure them to the foundation arranged down the length of the main plates and on the sides of the knuckle plates. Made of iron. Old, mostly stable oxidized finish on the exterior. Found at Queenhithe, London. Publications: Object and Economy in Medieval Winchester Martin Biddle (Fig 349) Medieval Artifacts Nigel Mills. (Fig 245b) and Armour of the English Knight 1400-1450 by Tobias Capwell page 166 - illustrated along with several separate gadlings in private collections.

Measurements: First plate 1 3/32 in. long, 1 1/8 in wide at the back end, 1 in wide at the front (measured at the very end before the corners are beveled back). Knuckle 1 3/32 in wide, 31/32 long at the side, 15/16 at the center. Third plate 1 3/4 in. long, 1 in wide at the back and 7/8 in wide at the line demarking the shaped area at the end where it starts tapering more. All width measurements performed flat under the curved plates. Thickness: generally .040-.050 with some thick spots up to .060 in.

Weight: [inv. num. A-236]


Arm circa 1430

Extremely rare example of a 15th c. piece of armour. Arm for the left arm. Perhaps from the fortress at Chalcis (Negroponte). Formed of a tubular upper cannon that wraps two thirds of the way around the arm connected to a bluntly-pointed cop with an abbreviated wing by one lame. The cop is then connected to a tulip-shaped vambrace formed of two pieces hinged on the outside by hinges and secured by a strap and buckle on the inside. The cop is connected to the vambrace by two lames. The second lame is attached to the vambrace by means of 3 lateral slots allowing the arm to rotate. The lower edge of the vambrace is bordered by a line of small rivets. The lower cannon is marked by an indistinct maker's mark involving a split cross. The upper edge of the upper plate with a narrow, outward-turned roll and a line of rivets securing a (later) leather used to lace the armour to the arming doublet. The inner plate of the vambrace, one lame, lisiere d'arret, one half of one hinge, and all of the rivets replaced. The character of these restorations is similar to the restorations on the Rhodes pieces in the Royal Armouries. Given Claude Blair's association with the Royal Armouries and the presence of the letters HRR on the inside of the inner vambrace plate it is likely that this piece was restored there (HRR almost certainly represents H. Russell Robinson). From the personal collection of Claude Blair. For similar examples see Stephen V. Granscay, The Bashford Dean Collection of Arms and Armour...., 1933, nos. 76-81, pl. V. The most detailed record of the pieces discovered at Chalcis see C. J Ffoulkes, An Italian Armour from Chalcis in the Ethnological Museum at Athens, Archaeologia, LXII (1911) pp. 381-390.

Measurements 39 cm long. The arm is 15 in. long overall when straight, upper cannon 5 1/2 in. tall at the center of the cop, 4 5/16 in. wide at the top, 4 3/16 in. wide at the bottom. The upper cannon is 8 1/8 in. around the circumference. The roll at the top of the upper cannon is 1/8 in. tall and 3/16 in. deep. Lower cannon 7 1/4 in. long at the center of the cop, 3 7/8 in. wide at the elbow, 2 5/8 in. wide at the wrist. The cop 3 1/4 in. tall at the center, 2 in. tall at the wing, 1 1/2 in. tall at the back. The slots in the vambrace for rotation are 5/8 in. wide. The hinges are 3/4 in. wide, the upper one is 1 3/8 in. long. The inside measurements of the buckle are 3/4 in. on the wide side of the trapezoid, 5/8 in. on the short side and 5/16 in. tall. The thickness varies significantly. The upper cannon is .040-.090 in., mostly .050-.070 in. The thickest part in the center. The cop is .050-060 on the back and .070-.080 on the front. The outer plate of the lower cannon is generally .070-.080 in the upper center and .050-.060 near the wrist. The upper lame is app. .030 in. and the lower one .040 in.

Weight 2 pounds 7.2 ounces (1,110 g). [inv. num. A-186]

Arm harness

Arm harness circa 1600

Left arm formed of a tubular upper cannon fitted with a turner of 3 lames. The upper and lower are secured by a raised, roped ridge in the upper that is engaged by a flare in the lower plate. The cop of bracelet form joined at the back with a single lame above and below. The vambrace of slight tubular form constructed from an inner and outer plate secured by one inset hinge on the inside and a pin on the outside. The main edges with roped inward turns. The surface is rough from the hammer with remains of oxide finish. There is a pin on the outside of the main plate of the turner to secure the arm to the pauldron. The main edges are decorated with incised lines. Many of the original rivets with dapped brass caps remain. The upper plate retains the leather tab used to secure the arm to the arming doublet. The hole at the inside of the turner plate would have secured a leather loop to secure the pauldron strap. The cop is cracked in 2 places. Ex. Royal House of Hanover.

Weight: 2 pounds 15.6 ounces (1,345 g). [inv. num. A-174]


Vambrace 17th century

Good 'tulip' form. Rolled at the wrist. Hinges and pin attachment remain. Good, stable black patina. [inv. num. A-36]

Cuisse with poleyn

Cuisse with poleyn circa 1580

Comprising a one-piece cuisse with poleyn of 4 plates. The cop of deeply rounded form with a small wing. The edge of the cop rises to a point at the center, the outer edge of the lames are cut to form a point in the center and points over the rivets. The top edge of the cuisse, wing and bottom plate with inward-turned rolled roped edges. The rolls are fairly even, the one on the top of the cuisse does taper a little bit. The rolls on the edge of the cop wing are full rolls on the flat portion of the wing but they flatten out and finally disappear in the indented area. The cuisse is shaped to the thigh, creased at the center and has an additional raised and roped line parallel to the top edge. The leg has a band of etched decoration in the form of a set of trophies of armour flanked by roped bands along the center line. The band between the top roll and roped line is etched with a foliate design. The edges of the cop and lame are filed with a simple roped decoration and have notches at the center crease. There are single filed notches on the inner ends of the cop, lame, lower plate and cuisse. The image of the leg with the knee bent illustrates the extent of motion allowed by the armour (almost, it does move a little more under pressure). Strap mounting rivets remain near the top of the cuisse and on the cop. The lower lame has a central slot to be secured to the greave.

Height 14 1/4 in. tall.

Generally varies between .030 and .050 inch thick, mostly .035-.040 in. with some places where it is as thin as .020 in. on the lower plate. [inv. num. A-169]

Cuisse for the left leg

Cuisse for the left leg circa 1510

Spanish (possibly Flemish or Italian). Formed of a short cuisse plate, a long demi-greave, a central cop and two lames above and below the cop. All formed with a central crease. The cuisse plate slightly boxed and the outside and dished to conform to the thigh. The upper edge of the cuisse bordered by a recessed band and hollow roll. The cop with a raised central ridge and another bridging the transition from the cop to the wing. The wing with a recessed border. The demi-greave cut away on the inside of the bottom and bordered by a recessed band and roll similar to the top of the cuisse. The outside cut off straight. A single buckle remains on the outside of the demi-greave. There are rivets for securing straps and buckles on the cuisse and knee cop. Sold from the Parsons collection as late 15th c. but the character of the piece - forms of the rolls and boxing much more closely approximates 1510 - similar in many ways to the cuisses on Henry VIII's Silvered and Engraved armour. It appears that this was likely originally rough from the hammer and would likely have been blackened. This is very similar in form to the knees illustrated in Albert F Calvert - Spanish Arms and Armour - plates 17(b) and 99. They are described as late 15th c. Other similar items can be seen in Mann - Notes on the Armour Worn in Spain - Archaeologia LXXXIII for 1933 p. 300 fig. 7 and item # 183 in the Kretzschmar von Kienbusch Collection of Armor and Arms 1963 (item number 183) - again identified as late 15th century Spanish.

Provenance: Dr. Peter Parsons Collection (2011), Brian Powers (1980)

Measurements - 15 in. overall height - others on the image. Thickness - cuisse .060-.070 in. cop .050-.060 in. demi-greave .040-.050 in. [inv. num. A-200]

Two couters

Two couters circa 1490

A pair of elbows - one is authentic, the other a well made copy. Each of shell form, pointed at the outside of the elbow and with a flare at the inside of the bend of the elbow. The outer surface covered by three stepped flutes on each side and a central squared raised ridge. Each of these is accentuated by an engraved line at the base of the step. The outer edge is decorated by a series of five cusps. The back and inside of the wing are plain. The cops have modern straps and have four holes at the center to secure the cop to the arm. Four holes are usually indicative of laces, but these holes appear to be smaller than would be normal for this. The form, decorative elements and four holes indicate a late 15th century date for the elbow.

Measurements: Elbow thickness varies significantly reflecting the rough interior surface - a few thick areas app. .060, thin areas app. .030. Varies significantly even in spots close to each other often between .040 and 050 in one area of the center. It appears this elbow was shaped roughly and ground to its smooth surface, not hammered to the exact shape.

Weights: elbow: 7.4 ounces (210g). [inv. num. A-214]

Couter (elbow cop)

Couter (elbow cop) circa 1500

Formed in a single piece wrapping two thirds of the way around the arm. With a raised ridge bordered by a parallel recessed border around outer edge of the wing and front of the cop, each accented by an engraved line. One rivet at the center to secure a leather connecting the cop to the vambrace and rivet and hole to secure a strap around the elbow. The cop formed with a blunt medial ridge forming a shallow point. This elbow is formed in a plain style that may be of either German or Italian origin. From the personal collection of Claude Blair.

Measurements 18.5 cm wide. 6 5/8 in. tall at the widest part of the wing, 5 in. tall at the back edge, and 6 in. from the point of the center of the wing to the back edge. Thickness .050-.080, generally in the .060-.075 range. [inv. num. A-185]

Pair of Elbow cops

Pair of Elbow cops circa 1500

German. A pair, both pitted, one with a large internal patch. Each of small, shell form with fluted border and engraved lines. Rising to a central fluted ridge, also accented by engraved lines. There is a hole in the center which would have engaged a pin in a leather strap that connected the cops to the vambrace. There are also two rivets at the back and one in the wing to secure a strap across the inside of the elbow. Ex. Col. Dr. Peter Parsons.

Measurements 5 1/4 in at the widest spot, 4 3/4 in. from the inside of the back to the inside of the inner point of the wing. The central hole is 7/16 in. in diameter. Thickness varies between .040 and .070. Generally thickest about 1/2 in from the center ridge flowing up to the point, thinning toward the central crease and toward the edge. Most of the area in the back, wing and outer edge is .040-.050. [inv. num. A-199]

Greaves and Sabatons

Greaves and Sabatons circa 1580

The greaves formed of two plates front and back formed to the leg hinged on the outside and secured by pins on the inside. Each with a sabaton of 9 plates (4 small plates overlapping a larger center plate then 3 smaller and terminal plate overlapping the central plate in the other direction) with terminal plate of boxed form turned over at the front and sides. Main plates creased at the center of the front and back. Sabatons creased at the center of the 4 plates closest to the greave, the crease ending in the main central plate. Small inward-turned, roped rolls formed around a wire at the bottom of the greave plates and very small, fine outward turned roll at the top of the back plate (behind the knee). The rear plate pierced with a hole for the spur. An additional plate rivetted into the inside of the plate to provide a threaded attachment for the spurs. 2 hinges on the outside of each greave. Hinges fully wrapped. The barrels cut into 4 sections (2 on each side). The ends rounded and filed to form simple flowers. Stamped with curved accents to emphasize the shape. Attached to the front and rear by one rivet each. Sabaton plates attached by sliding rivets at each side and originally 2 leather straps (one on each side of the instep, most of the inner remaining on both). Remains of leather strap in the base of the toe plate to secure sabaton to the shoe. 18 in. tall. Sabaton 11 3/4 in. from the back of the heel to the front of the toe. 80 painted inside the back plate of the right greave. From the George F. Harding Collection Thickness varies. Mostly .030 - .040, but with isolated areas that are thicker than .050. [inv. num. A-124]


Pauldron circa 1500

For the right shoulder. Fluted at the center of the arm and heavily fluted in the back of the main plate. Flutes asymmetric with engraved lines on both sides accenting the form of the flute. Upper edge of the main plate filed to rounded tabs. The rear edge of the main plate with bent down cusps. Center of the main plate with a sculpted peg to secure the lance when held over the shoulder. Originally part of a Stech armour of very high quality. A pair of pauldrons of similar form are illustrated on plate 73 of Katalog Der Leibrustkammer I teil. They are dated 1497. That pair are somewhat more plain. Purportedy from the collection at Schloss Grafenegg. The plates have a very nice form, overall tapering to the arm and flairing out in the front where it would overlap the breastplate and aggressively curved in the back where it would fit over the shoulder blades.

Measurements: Thickness varies mostly between .075 and .050 in. The thickness is a little random, like most authentic pieces, but the front of the main plate and several of the lower plates is the thickest part of the piece. The thickest spot on the main plate is just in front of the post. Some portions of the 3rd and 4th plates reach .080 in. The terminal plate is more generally around .050 in. There is some odd variability, but the general pattern places the thickest material in the front and side in areas which would not be covered by other plates. [inv. num. A-283]

Italian Pauldron

Italian Pauldron late 16th cent

Large main plate overlapping those above and below. 2 plates above, 4 below. Main edges with inward-turned rolls and recessed borders. For use with a floating elbow or with elbow gauntlets. Brass-capped rivets. Leathers and some rivets replaced. Top plate cracked at the center with a modern riveted patch.

Thickness varies between .022 and .058 in., mostly .035-.040 in. There seems to be very little pattern to the thickness variation. There has certainly been some loss due to oxidation.

Measurements: height at the crease measured over the outside 12 1/2 in. length of the top of the main plate 17 3/4 in. (9 behind the crease, 8 3/4 in front).

Weight: 1 pound 13.6 ounces (840 g). [inv. num. A-35]


Pauldron late 16th century

Main plate with embossed sworls on front and back. Recessed borders. Large main plate with 2 upper plates. And 4 lower plates.

Measurements: length of top of main plate 20 5/8 inches - 10 1/8 behind the crease, 10 1/2 in front.

Weight: 2 pounds 0.8 ounces (930 g). [inv. num. A-132]

Arm Harness with Pauldron

Arm Harness with Pauldron circa 1550

Composed of a pauldron extending to the elbow, a floating cop and a closed vambrace. The pauldron formed of 2 large plates above and 4 small plates below the large central plate. The edge of the upper plates and the bottom edge of the lowest plate with roped inward turned roll and a parallel recessed border. The top plates articulated on rivets, the bottom ones secured by sliding rivets at the back and leathers in the center and front. Cop of angular form. The vambrace is formed of 2 plates hinged by 2 internal leathers at the front and a pin on the inner plate engaging a hole in the outer plate at the back. The cop and pauldron with rivets with brass rosette washers. The vambrace plates secured by two leather strips at the front and a strap and buckle at the back. The pauldron, cop and vambrace are secured by 2 vertical leather strips riveted to the cop and slotted onto rivets in the pauldron and vambrace. In uncleaned condition from an English household. [inv. num. A-167]

German/Austrian (possibly Gratz) Breastplate

German/Austrian (possibly Gratz) Breastplate circa 1590

Including 2 buckles at shoulders. Rolled edges at arm holes and neck, full flare at waist - used without any fauld lames. Simple peascod shape. This breastplate is relatively light and most likely sword proof and not shot proof. This item is very similar to large numbers of breastplates in the Arsenal in Graz. Its original blackened finish has been removed by cleaning with acid. Originally it would have been used with a pair of tassets suspended directly from the wide flare at the waist of the breastplate - taking the place of the fauld. The holes for the tasset straps are evident. Each tasset would have been suspended by 3 straps and buckles - the ones nearest the edge and center of the breastplate were attached by 2 rivets, the central one with a single rivet. Weight 3.5 lbs.

rough inner and outer surfaces, but roughly .050-.060 inch thick overall. [inv. num. A-15]


Breastplate circa 1600

Breastplate. Shot-proof breast made for use without fauld or tassets. Good, full peascod form. Heavy weight. Simple outward rolls a the neck and arms with some signs of roping. The material is thick enough that a simple narrow outward fold has been shaped to look like the more usual roll. Scalloped waist flare. Pairs of incised lines. Weight 15.5 lbs.

Height 15 1/2 in. from base to center of neck hole. 12 in. wide at the waist, 14 3/8 in. wide under the arm holes.

Thickness. Near the center, app. 1 in. from the crease the thickest point of the breastplate is .285 in. Generally the center is .220 - .260 in. Thins to .185 at the top of the shoulder extensions. Thins at the peascod to .165-.195 in. Central band forming the crease thins aggresively to .160-.195 in. Tapers to .104-.138 at the side under the arm holes.

Weight: 14 pounds 7.6 ounces (6,656 g). [inv. num. A-79]


Breastplate late 15th c.

Built in the characteristic 15th c. style of 2 plates where the upper plate covers much of the chest and is overlapped by a lower plate that rises up in the center. The upper plate has simple, tapered, outward-turned rolls at the neck and arms. The roll at the neck is just slightly curved. There are two rivets for attachment of buckles at the shoulders, both of these are replaced, one has been moved somewhat to account for the loss of the end of the shoulder extension. There is another rivet right at the edge of the loss that matches the location of the rivet on the other shoulder. The lower plate has a flare at the bottom for the suspension of a fauld. There are 2 holes for the rivets to secure the fauld lames, a rivet remains in one hole. The 2 plates are presently secured by 4 rivets, the largest, central one of these would have originally been a bolt, the others are later additions. The lower plate rises to a wide peak at the center and it cut with 2 small cusps at the side. The edges of the central point are beveled over most of the edge. The bevel terminates before the cusps. This breastplate is of relatively heavy construction. The metal thickness by visual inspection in the center appears to be app. 3 mm tapering to app. 1 mm at the sides. These are estimates as it is hard to actually measure the thickness in its current configuration. A few actual measurements with a deep micrometer indicates that after the losses to rust the central upper breastplate varies between .115 and .150 in. in the center. The edge under the arm thins noticeably - the very edge is generally .040-.050 with one thin spot down to .030. Within 2 in. from the edge it thickens to .090 and then on up to the central thickness. The lower plate is more even in thickness and noticeably thinner - generally app. .050 in. It is basically a really large waste lame. There is some loss to one shoulder and at the center of the lower flare. Very similar in form to the breastplate illustrated as item 5.8 (page 89) in The Medieval Armour from Rhodes by Karcheski and Richardson. This item is in the collection of the Chateau de Grandson Switzerland. This breastplate is described as German or Italian end of the 15th/early 16th century. They also identify it as of the type called Fussknectbrust - for use by armoured infantry. This one may be intended for mounted or higher-end use since the metal thickness varies from the center to the sides. Generally these simple 2 piece breastplates are attributed to late 15th c.

Measurements: (all taken straight on the inside) - width at the narrowest spot between the armholes - 9 1/2 in., width at the bottom of the armholes 14 3/8 in., width at the waist 12 1/4 in., height from waist to the top of the center of the neck 13 7/8 in., overall height 15 1/4 in.

Weight 6 pounds 10.6 ounces (3,025 g). [inv. num. A-193]


Breastplate circa 1490

German. Composed. Upper plate with outward turned triangular rolls at the neck and arms. The form of the upper breastplate and specifically its rolls with sweeping inner curves compares very well to the Gothic armours in Vienna made by Lorenz Helmschmied. Plackart formed of one main plate and two smaller plates. Plackart associated. Plackart lames somewhat reworked to fit upper. Some modern internal patches in original plates. One end of the upper breastplate extended to match other side. Modern fauld of four lames. Upper plate fitted with a folding lance rest secured by two bolts from he inside. Lance rest described as modern in sale description. After removal and investigation the details of construction and wear indicate that there is a possibility that the lance rest is actually of the period, possibly even originally part of the same armour as the upper breastplate. It compares very closely to those which survive on the Vienna Gothic armours of the same period. There are also similarities to the lance rest on slightly later Mantova B-8. The bolts are also similar to one of those on the Mantova armour. Two modern buckles at the shoulders. Ex. JW Higgins armoury inv. no. 802. From Dr Bashford Dean, Riverdale, New York, purchased from his estate, 28th September 1929. Exhibited Rockefeller Center, New York, 1 - 30 June 1965 and Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, 9 April - 16 September 1963

Measurements: Lance Rest. The hinge portion is composed of 3 parts. The central part is part of the base, the two outside elements are part of the hook. The outer two knuckles are 1/4 in. thick. The central knuckle is just over 5/16 in. thick. There isn't a clean spot where the hinge actually is a full circle. But if I measure from the top to the flat spot on the bottom, it is just over 7/8 in. tall. Top to bottom 4 1/8 in. from end of point to end of point. The base arches app 5/16 in. above the level of the 2 points at the center to allow it to fit to the curve of the breastplate. From the center of the base to the end of the hook 4 3/16 in. Width of the base from the end of a point to flat spot 1 3/4 in. Holes are app. 1 1/2 in. apart on center.

Breastplate thickness (measuring in the upper breastplate, the least adapated part) .085 in. to .12 in. generally .095-.11 in. It seems to be a little thicker under the lance rest. [inv. num. A-237]


Breastplate circa 1500-1510

Italian/Flemish. One piece breastplate with central crease. Angular outward-turned rolls at the neck and arms. Flaired bottom edge for a fauld.

Measurements: 13 in. tall, 13 1/2 in wide below the arm holes, 11 3/8 in. wide at the waist. Thickness: center mostly .120-.140 with thick spots up to .150, side tapers down to .080, shoulders taper to .050, but only right at the edge more of the shoulder area is no thinner than .080. Rolls up to app. 1/2 in. tall at the center. Weight 5 pounds 11.6 ounces (2.595 kilo). [inv. num. A-239]


Breastplate circa 1550-80

German. Black and white with rough from the hammer surface with raised polished bands. The neck with a tapered inward turned roped roll. The arms fitted with gussets with inward turned tapered rolls. Retains fauld of 3 plates. Reblackened with paint to simulate the original appearance. Polished bands at the center, middle of each side and sides of the breastplate which continue on the fauld. The bands on the breastplate are very roughly formed on the outside, tooling appearing to be made by very small, narrow pien. The bands in the fauld more cleanly made, likely because raising bands on the thinner material is easier. small patch in the flair fr the fauld. Retains rivets for leathers in the fauld. These are located int the raised bands in the middle of each side of the fauld. Area in the upper half of the inside of the breastplate cleaned.

Measurements: 11 1/4 in wide at the waist, 14 in. wide under the arms, app. 10 1/4 in. wide at the top of the breastplate, 12 1/2 in. tall breastplate at the center to the waist, 17 1/4 in. tall overall including the fauld. Breastplate varies between .040 and .070, mostly .060-070 in. thick. Fauld thinner - mostly .030-.050. This breastplate is smaller and thinner than most. [inv. num. A-262]

Italian Close Helmet

Italian Close Helmet circa 1580

One-piece skull, visor, upper and lower bevor and 3 neck lames front and back. The skull rising to a tall roped comb (small holes near the top of the comb and one small brazed repair) swept slightly back, bordered by incised lines, with circular holes over the each ear in the form of a circle of 8 holes with a central hole. With a shaped plume-holder incised with chevrons at the base by one rivet on each side. Pointed visor with horizontal vision sight divided centrally, pointed lifting-peg fitting into the upper bevor. The upper bevor fits the visor exactly, the upper edge curved in at the back of the eyeslot. Pierced with circular breaths in the form of a circle of 8 holes with a central hole (matching the holes in the skull, but forming a larger circle). on the right and pivoted at the same points as the chin-piece. Chin-piece and upper bevor secured by hooks which engage in to flattened pegs pierced with a hole. Face hole of the chin-piece bordered by a roped inward-turned roll. Face edge of the skull plain with single engraved line. Lining rivets around the face hole flush on the outside. Three neck-plates at front and rear (lower two rear plates replaced), the bottom ones each with turned and roped border and an additional roped ridge parallel to the border. Similar to the helmet on B-13 from Mantova.

Weight: 6 pounds 11.2 ounces (3,045 g). [inv. num. A-114a]


Burgonet Late 16th c.

South German. Black and white. One piece skull with high comb. The comb, a band along the face and an arched band on each side polished, the remainder black and rough from the hammer. Cheek plates hinged at the sides of the skull in the normal fashion, but extended to join under the chin where they overlap and are secured by a pin and hook. Each cheek plate with a raised polished area over the ear pierced with 5 holes connected by engraved lines. The front edge of the cheek plates continues the raised, polished band from the skull. Moveable peak pivoted at the sides of the skull. The bottom of the skull and cheek plates continued by separate plates - two over the neck and one on each cheek plate. These are secured to the skull by internal leathers and to the cheek plates by a sliding rivet at the back and leathers at the front. Edges of the peak and neck plates with a recessed border and inward, roped turns. Lining rivets at the base of skull along the neck continuing across the cheek plates and at the face hole. Most rivets of brass mimicing some (probably) original iron capped rivets. Nice, higher end example. [inv. num. A-274]

German Gothic Gauntlet

German Gothic Gauntlet circa 1480-90

Single gauntlet for the right hand. Nicely formed 'Gothic' gauntlet typical of the late 15th century in Germany. Fluted, engraved and pierced overall. Formed of a large metacarpal plate joined to a wrist lame by another, smaller lame. The cuff is also attached to the wrist lame. The cuff is pointed with a small outward turn. The knuckle, metacarpal, wrist and cuff plates are attached with sliding rivets allowing the wrist to flex in all directions. The knuckle plate is formed into a rounded crease over each knuckle. The base of the thumb is covered by a large plate secured to the metacarpal plate with a hinge. The thumb and fingers are covered by two plates bridged by a pointed knuckle plate that overlaps the other two plates. The finger plates are secured to a plate inside the knuckle plate. This plate is secured to the sides of the knuckle plate. Rivets replaced. Finger and thumb plates are probably also modern, but well made.

Thickness: cuff generally 0.028 in (varying, .025-.032), wrist plate and next hand plate app. .030, main hand plate .030-.055 - mostly .040-.050, knuckle plate can't reasonably me measured due to the inner plate and finger plates.

Weight: 13.2 ounces (375 g). [inv. num. A-213]

German Gauntlet (part)

German Gauntlet (part) circa 1490-1500

Finger, knuckle and 1 1/2 metacarpal plates of a German Gothic mitten gauntlet. The finger lames are fluted so simulate fingers, the knuckle plate with rounded and creased knuckles. The first metacarpal plate is fluted with v-shaped puckers to accommodate the flutes in the knuckle and finger lames. There is half of the hinge used to attach the thumb plate, and half of the second metacarpal plate remaining. Each of the articulations is formed with sliding rivets with slots app. 1/4 in. long. 2 rivets have been lost, the parts held together by bolts. Formerly in the collection of Leonard Heinrich - armourer to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

Thickness: Generally around .030 in. The back of hand plate is pretty consistently .028-.032. The knuckle plate varies more, generally .025-.030, the finger plates vary even more - .020-030. The hinge is folded over. The overall thickness of the two layers is .060 at the bend, the actual metal is likely a little thinner. The pin is .090 in diameter, the hinge is .450 wide at the pin. The partial plate is 3/4 in. wide at the center, .7 in. at near the bulge at the end, .85 at the bulge for the rivet. The second finger plate is just over 1 in. wide. The first plate is app. 1 1/16 in. wide. The main hand plate is 2 in wide at the first knuckle tapering to 1 11/16ths at the fourth knuckle.

Weight: 4.6 ounces (130 grams) [inv. num. A-47]